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Questions and answers: Defining parts of the user interface. Questions and answers: Disk mount options. Tips and tricks: Restoring partition table.
Questions and answers: Improving boot times. Tips and tricks: Default passwords on live media. Latest News and Updates News Filtering Options. Distribution: All 0Linux 0Linux 2XOS 2XOS 3CX 3CX 4MLinux 4MLinux 64 Studio 64 Studio Absolute Absolute AbulÉdu AbulÉdu AcademiX AcademiX Adamantix Adamantix ADIOS ADIOS AgiliaLinux AgiliaLinux AGNULA AGNULA AiO AiO Aleader Aleader Alinex Alinex aLinux aLinux AliXe AliXe AlmaLinux AlmaLinux Alpine Alpine ALT ALT Amarok Live Amarok Live Amber Amber Anarchy Anarchy Android-x86 Android-x86 Ankur Bangla Ankur Bangla Annvix Annvix AnNyung AnNyung Anonym.
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Linux SCI. Rate this project. Daphile Daphile is a Gentoo-based Linux distribution whose primary focus is in storage and playback of a digital music library.
It also enables the best possible audio quality and future-proof flexibility by providing plug-and-play support for USB connected digital-to-analog converters DAC. The new release updates the Linux kernel and ads several new features: " version Download MD5 : daphile iso MB , daphile iso MB. Glen MacArthur has announced the release of AV Linux MX org at version 3.
iso 3,MB, SHA , signature , pkglist. A separate release, MXDE-EFL TrueNAS SCALE is a Deban-based network attached storage NAS operating system. The project's latest release, TrueNAS SCALE It adds API authentication when using Directory Services. This feature is a first step toward improving the local accounts feature and additional improvements are being planned for future SCALE updates.
Adds a bulk Upgrade operation that updates installed applications that have available updates, adds new apps to the Available Applications catalog, and implements the overlayfs driver for Docker which improves performance over the Linux Kubernetes driver. Download SHA : TrueNAS-SCALE iso 1,MB, signature. XeroLinux , a distribution added to DistroWatch recently, has been updated to version XeroLinux is based on Arch Linux and uses KDE Plasma as the preferred desktop.
Some of the features of the distribution include the Calamares installer, various under-the-hood tweaks and optimisations, built-in support for community-built AUR packages as well as Flatpak packages, and the availability of various desktop and bootloader themes developed in-house.
The project's files page on SourceForge lists some of the recent changes: " A new ISO image is now live. Important changes: MHWD Manjaro's Hardware Detection removed due to issues; Grub is now being used for booting the live ISO image, no more systemd boot; major under-the-hood performance optimizations made to KDE Plasma; XeroLinux Hello updated with more packages and drivers now using a script.
System and package updates: Arch Linux kernel updated to version 6. iso 2,MB. Kaisen Linux is a rolling release, Debian-based desktop distribution. The project aims to be useful for IT professionals and includes a set of tools for system administration. The project's latest release is version 2.
It was since the first release of Kaisen Linux the default terminal, but the majority of users asked for the return of Bash by default, which has been done on this release. Several polls on the different social network pages have been done for this. However, it is still installed as it was before with oh-my-zsh , and it is possible to reset it to the default. The documentation is here: ZSH on Kaisen Linux. The Conky theme is no longer installed by default with the GUIs, but is a separate package named kaisen-conky, which is no longer installed by default.
The reason for this is that user feedback was not unanimous about the default presence of Conky on Kaisen Linux and therefore it is now considered a 'goodie' and can be installed optionally. Download SHA , pkglist : kaisenlinuxrolling2. iso 5,MB , kaisenlinuxrolling2. iso 5,MB. This week in DistroWatch Weekly : Review: OpenBSD 7.
New additions: risiOS New distributions: Vanilla OS Reader comments Read more in this week's issue of DistroWatch Weekly The developers of Puppy Linux, a lightweight distribution which can be assembled to be compatible with a variety of parent distributions, have published a Slackware-based version of Puppy Linux.
It is compatible with the Slackware Linux The release announcement shares key details: " S15Pup is built from a 'Puppy builder' system named Woof-CE, which can build a Puppy Linux distribution from the binary packages of any other distro.
Each 'Puppy distro' built by Woof-CE is a distinctive distribution in its own right, with unique features. S15Pup is built from Slackware Linux It is available in both bit and bit versions. Features include: traditional Puppy Linux look and feel and features; Linux kernels from the LTS branches of 5 series - 5.
iso MB, pkglist. The deepin project has published a new update to the distribution's x series. The new version, What is more, we have upgraded Qt to version 5. Besides that, we have developed and integrated a great number of practical functions based on the community users' feedback. The new self-developed information-aggregation application, Deepin Home, in version 1. Here you can receive community news in real time, interact and communicate with others, participate in questionnaires, etc.
In the future, we will establish a perfect tracking system for requirements and bugs, and special feedback channels for software and hardware to make it better for community users.
Download: deepin-desktop-community iso 3,MB, SHA , pkglist. Kali Linux is a Debian-based distribution with a collection of security and forensics tools. The Kali team has released Kali Linux Today we are publishing Kali Linux This is ready for immediate download or updating existing installations.
It would not be a Kali release if there were not any new tools added. A quick rundown of what has been added to the network repositories : bloodhound. These are new tools, there are numerous updates to the existing tools. Download SHA , pkglist : kali-linux iso 3,MB, torrent , kali-linux iso MB, torrent.
The Linux Mint team have announced the launch of a development snapshot, Linux Mint Some of the key adjustments involve making software management a smoother experience. Download pkglist : linuxmint iso 2,MB, SHA , signature , torrent , linuxmint A LABEL is a key-value pair. To include spaces within a LABEL value, use quotes and backslashes as you would in command-line parsing.
A few usage examples:. An image can have more than one label. You can specify multiple labels on a single line. Prior to Docker 1. You may still choose to specify multiple labels in a single instruction, in one of the following two ways:. Be sure to use double quotes and not single quotes. Particularly when you are using string interpolation e. Labels included in base or parent images images in the FROM line are inherited by your image.
If a label already exists but with a different value, the most-recently-applied value overrides any previously-set value. You can use the --format option to show just the labels;. The LABEL instruction is a much more flexible version of this and you should use it instead, as it enables setting any metadata you require, and can be viewed easily, for example with docker inspect. This will then be visible from docker inspect with the other labels. The EXPOSE instruction informs Docker that the container listens on the specified network ports at runtime.
You can specify whether the port listens on TCP or UDP, and the default is TCP if the protocol is not specified. The EXPOSE instruction does not actually publish the port.
It functions as a type of documentation between the person who builds the image and the person who runs the container, about which ports are intended to be published. To actually publish the port when running the container, use the -p flag on docker run to publish and map one or more ports, or the -P flag to publish all exposed ports and map them to high-order ports. By default, EXPOSE assumes TCP.
You can also specify UDP:. In this case, if you use -P with docker run , the port will be exposed once for TCP and once for UDP. Remember that -P uses an ephemeral high-ordered host port on the host, so the port will not be the same for TCP and UDP. Regardless of the EXPOSE settings, you can override them at runtime by using the -p flag. For example. To set up port redirection on the host system, see using the -P flag. The docker network command supports creating networks for communication among containers without the need to expose or publish specific ports, because the containers connected to the network can communicate with each other over any port.
For detailed information, see the overview of this feature. This value will be in the environment for all subsequent instructions in the build stage and can be replaced inline in many as well.
The value will be interpreted for other environment variables, so quote characters will be removed if they are not escaped. Like command line parsing, quotes and backslashes can be used to include spaces within values. variables to be set at one time, and the example below will yield the same net results in the final image:.
The environment variables set using ENV will persist when a container is run from the resulting image. A stage inherits any environment variables that were set using ENV by its parent stage or any ancestor.
Refer here for more on multi-staged builds. Environment variable persistence can cause unexpected side effects. If an environment variable is only needed during build, and not in the final image, consider setting a value for a single command instead:.
Or using ARG , which is not persisted in the final image:. This syntax does not allow for multiple environment-variables to be set in a single ENV instruction, and can be confusing. The alternative syntax is supported for backward compatibility, but discouraged for the reasons outlined above, and may be removed in a future release. The --chown feature is only supported on Dockerfiles used to build Linux containers, and will not work on Windows containers.
In the example below,? is replaced with any single character, e. When adding files or directories that contain special characters such as [ and ] , you need to escape those paths following the Golang rules to prevent them from being treated as a matching pattern.
For example, to add a file named arr. txt , use the following;. The format of the --chown flag allows for either username and groupname strings or direct integer UID and GID in any combination.
Providing a username without groupname or a UID without GID will use the same numeric UID as the GID. The following examples show valid definitions for the --chown flag:. Using numeric IDs requires no lookup and will not depend on container root filesystem content.
If the remote file being retrieved has an HTTP Last-Modified header, the timestamp from that header will be used to set the mtime on the destination file. However, like any other file processed during an ADD , mtime will not be included in the determination of whether or not the file has changed and the cache should be updated.
gz , the Dockerfile at the root of the archive and the rest of the archive will be used as the context of the build. If your URL files are protected using authentication, you need to use RUN wget , RUN curl or use another tool from within the container as the ADD instruction does not support authentication.
This includes invalidating the cache for RUN instructions. See the Dockerfile Best Practices guide — Leverage build cache for more information.
com will not work. Resources from remote URLs are not decompressed. When a directory is copied or unpacked, it has the same behavior as tar -x , the result is the union of:. Whether a file is identified as a recognized compression format or not is done solely based on the contents of the file, not the name of the file.
For example, if an empty file happens to end with. gz this will not be recognized as a compressed file and will not generate any kind of decompression error message, rather the file will simply be copied to the destination.
The checksum of a remote file can be verified with the --checksum flag:. The --checksum flag only supports HTTP sources currently. This form allows adding a git repository to an image directly, without using the git command inside the image:. git directory. This flag defaults to false. This Dockerfile can be built with docker build --ssh or buildctl build --ssh , e. See COPY --link. When copying files or directories that contain special characters such as [ and ] , you need to escape those paths following the Golang rules to prevent them from being treated as a matching pattern.
For example, to copy a file named arr. Using numeric IDs requires no lookup and does not depend on container root filesystem content. When --link is used your source files are copied into an empty destination directory. That directory is turned into a layer that is linked on top of your previous state. Use --link to reuse already built layers in subsequent builds with --cache-from even if the previous layers have changed. This is especially important for multi-stage builds where a COPY --from statement would previously get invalidated if any previous commands in the same stage changed, causing the need to rebuild the intermediate stages again.
With --link the layer the previous build generated is reused and merged on top of the new layers. This also means you can easily rebase your images when the base images receive updates, without having to execute the whole build again. In backends that support it, BuildKit can do this rebase action without the need to push or pull any layers between the client and the registry. BuildKit will detect this case and only create new image manifest that contains the new layers and old layers in correct order.
The same behavior where BuildKit can avoid pulling down the base image can also happen when using --link and no other commands that would require access to the files in the base image. In that case BuildKit will only build the layers for the COPY commands and push them to the registry directly on top of the layers of the base image.
In the final image the destination path created with --link will always be a path containing only directories. The performance of --link is equivalent or better than the default behavior and, it creates much better conditions for cache reuse.
This allows arguments to be passed to the entry point, i. When you run the container, you can see that top is the only process:. To examine the result further, you can use docker exec :. And you can gracefully request top to shut down using docker stop test. If you need to write a starter script for a single executable, you can ensure that the final executable receives the Unix signals by using exec and gosu commands:. This form will use shell processing to substitute shell environment variables, and will ignore any CMD or docker run command line arguments.
If you then run docker stop test , the container will not exit cleanly - the stop command will be forced to send a SIGKILL after the timeout:. There are few rules that describe their co-operation. CMD will be overridden when running the container with alternative arguments. In this scenario, CMD must be defined in the current image to have a value. The VOLUME instruction creates a mount point with the specified name and marks it as holding externally mounted volumes from native host or other containers.
The docker run command initializes the newly created volume with any data that exists at the specified location within the base image. For example, consider the following Dockerfile snippet:.
Keep the following things in mind about volumes in the Dockerfile. Volumes on Windows-based containers : When using Windows-based containers, the destination of a volume inside the container must be one of:.
Changing the volume from within the Dockerfile : If any build steps change the data within the volume after it has been declared, those changes will be discarded. JSON formatting : The list is parsed as a JSON array. You must enclose words with double quotes " rather than single quotes '. The host directory is declared at container run-time : The host directory the mountpoint is, by its nature, host-dependent.
The VOLUME instruction does not support specifying a host-dir parameter. You must specify the mountpoint when you create or run the container. The USER instruction sets the user name or UID and optionally the user group or GID to use as the default user and group for the remainder of the current stage. Note that when specifying a group for the user, the user will have only the specified group membership. Any other configured group memberships will be ignored. This can be done with the net user command called as part of a Dockerfile.
The WORKDIR instruction can be used multiple times in a Dockerfile. If a relative path is provided, it will be relative to the path of the previous WORKDIR instruction. The WORKDIR instruction can resolve environment variables previously set using ENV. You can only use environment variables explicitly set in the Dockerfile. Therefore, to avoid unintended operations in unknown directories, it is best practice to set your WORKDIR explicitly.
If a user specifies a build argument that was not defined in the Dockerfile, the build outputs a warning. A Dockerfile may include one or more ARG instructions.
For example, the following is a valid Dockerfile:. It is not recommended to use build-time variables for passing secrets like GitHub keys, user credentials etc. Build-time variable values are visible to any user of the image with the docker history command. An ARG instruction can optionally include a default value:. If an ARG instruction has a default value and if there is no value passed at build-time, the builder uses the default. For example, consider this Dockerfile:.
Prior to its definition by an ARG instruction, any use of a variable results in an empty string. An ARG instruction goes out of scope at the end of the build stage where it was defined. To use an arg in multiple stages, each stage must include the ARG instruction. You can use an ARG or an ENV instruction to specify variables that are available to the RUN instruction. Environment variables defined using the ENV instruction always override an ARG instruction of the same name.
Consider this Dockerfile with an ENV and ARG instruction. In this case, the RUN instruction uses v1. Using the example above but a different ENV specification you can create more useful interactions between ARG and ENV instructions:.
Unlike an ARG instruction, ENV values are always persisted in the built image. Consider a docker build without the --build-arg flag:.
The variable expansion technique in this example allows you to pass arguments from the command line and persist them in the final image by leveraging the ENV instruction.
Variable expansion is only supported for a limited set of Dockerfile instructions. Docker has a set of predefined ARG variables that you can use without a corresponding ARG instruction in the Dockerfile.
To use these, pass them on the command line using the --build-arg flag, for example:. By default, these pre-defined variables are excluded from the output of docker history. com , a subsequent build does not result in a cache miss.
If you need to override this behaviour then you may do so by adding an ARG statement in the Dockerfile as follows:. Docker predefines a set of ARG variables with information on the platform of the node performing the build build platform and on the platform of the resulting image target platform.
The target platform can be specified with the --platform flag on docker build. The following ARG variables are set automatically:. These arguments are defined in the global scope so are not automatically available inside build stages or for your RUN commands. To expose one of these arguments inside the build stage redefine it without value.
When using a Git context,. git dir is not kept on git checkouts. It can be useful to keep it around if you want to retrieve git information during your build:. ARG variables are not persisted into the built image as ENV variables are. However, ARG variables do impact the build cache in similar ways. In particular, all RUN instructions following an ARG instruction use the ARG variable implicitly as an environment variable , thus can cause a cache miss. All predefined ARG variables are exempt from caching unless there is a matching ARG statement in the Dockerfile.
In this example, the cache miss occurs on line 3. In this example, the ENV command causes the image to include the value. If an ENV instruction overrides an ARG instruction of the same name, like this Dockerfile:.
The ONBUILD instruction adds to the image a trigger instruction to be executed at a later time, when the image is used as the base for another build. The trigger will be executed in the context of the downstream build, as if it had been inserted immediately after the FROM instruction in the downstream Dockerfile. This is useful if you are building an image which will be used as a base to build other images, for example an application build environment or a daemon which may be customized with user-specific configuration.
For example, if your image is a reusable Python application builder, it will require application source code to be added in a particular directory, and it might require a build script to be called after that. You could simply provide application developers with a boilerplate Dockerfile to copy-paste into their application, but that is inefficient, error-prone and difficult to update because it mixes with application-specific code.
The solution is to use ONBUILD to register advance instructions to run later, during the next build stage. The default is SIGTERM if not defined. This can detect cases such as a web server that is stuck in an infinite loop and unable to handle new connections, even though the server process is still running.
When a container has a healthcheck specified, it has a health status in addition to its normal status. This status is initially starting. Whenever a health check passes, it becomes healthy whatever state it was previously in. After a certain number of consecutive failures, it becomes unhealthy. The options that can appear before CMD are:.
The health check will first run interval seconds after the container is started, and then again interval seconds after each previous check completes.
If a single run of the check takes longer than timeout seconds then the check is considered to have failed. It takes retries consecutive failures of the health check for the container to be considered unhealthy.
start period provides initialization time for containers that need time to bootstrap. Probe failure during that period will not be counted towards the maximum number of retries. However, if a health check succeeds during the start period, the container is considered started and all consecutive failures will be counted towards the maximum number of retries.
The command after the CMD keyword can be either a shell command e. To help debug failing probes, any output text UTF-8 encoded that the command writes on stdout or stderr will be stored in the health status and can be queried with docker inspect. Such output should be kept short only the first bytes are stored currently.
The SHELL instruction allows the default shell used for the shell form of commands to be overridden. The SHELL instruction must be written in JSON form in a Dockerfile. The SHELL instruction is particularly useful on Windows where there are two commonly used and quite different native shells: cmd and powershell , as well as alternate shells available including sh.
The SHELL instruction can appear multiple times. Each SHELL instruction overrides all previous SHELL instructions, and affects all subsequent instructions. The following example is a common pattern found on Windows which can be streamlined by using the SHELL instruction:. This is inefficient for two reasons. First, there is an un-necessary cmd. exe command processor aka shell being invoked. Second, each RUN instruction in the shell form requires an extra powershell -command prefixing the command.
To make this more efficient, one of two mechanisms can be employed. One is to use the JSON form of the RUN command such as:. While the JSON form is unambiguous and does not use the un-necessary cmd. exe, it does require more verbosity through double-quoting and escaping.
The alternate mechanism is to use the SHELL instruction and the shell form, making a more natural syntax for Windows users, especially when combined with the escape parser directive:. The SHELL instruction could also be used to modify the way in which a shell operates.
The SHELL instruction can also be used on Linux should an alternate shell be required such as zsh , csh , tcsh and others. Here-documents allow redirection of subsequent Dockerfile lines to the input of RUN or COPY commands. If such command contains a here-document the Dockerfile considers the next lines until the line only containing a here-doc delimiter as part of the same command.
In COPY commands source parameters can be replaced with here-doc indicators. Regular here-doc variable expansion and tab stripping rules apply. Dockerfile reference Docker can build images automatically by reading the instructions from a Dockerfile.
Comment RUN echo 'we are running some of cool things'. this is a comment-line RUN echo hello RUN echo world. Sending build context to Docker daemon 3. exe" ]. FROM ubuntu CMD echo "This is a test. LABEL "com. LABEL multi.
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